QAID E AZAM & ALLAMA IQBAL

 

Who could understand Allama Iqbal better than the Quaid-i-Azam himself, who was his awaited "Guide of the Era"? The Quaid-i-Azam in the Introduction to Allama Iqbal's letters addressed to him, admitted that he had agreed with Allama Iqbal regarding a State for Indian Muslims before the latters death in April, 1938. The Quaid stated:

His views were substantially in consonance with my own and had finally led me to the same conclusions as a result of careful examination and study of the constitutional problems facing India and found expression in due course in the united will of Muslim India as adumbrated in the Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League popularly known as the "Pakistan Resolution" passed on 23rd March, 1940.

Furthermore, it was Allama Iqbal who called upon Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah to lead the Muslims of India to their cherished goal. He preferred the Quaid to other more experienced Muslim leaders such as Sir Aga Khan, Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Nawab Muhammad Ismail Khan, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Nawab Hamid Ullah Khan of Bhopal, Sir Ali Imam, Maulvi Tameez-ud-Din Khan, Maulana Abul Kalam, Allama al-Mashriqi and others. But Allama Iqbal had his own reasons. He had found his "Khizr-i-Rah", the veiled guide in Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who was destined to lead the Indian branch of the Muslim Ummah to their goal of freedom. Allama Iqbal stated:

I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India, and perhaps to the whole of India.

Similar sentiments were expressed by him about three months before his death. Sayyid Nazir Niazi in his book Iqbal Ke Huzur, has stated that the future of the Indian Muslims was being discussed and a tenor of pessimism was visible from what his friends said. At this Allama Iqbal observed:

There is only one way out. Muslim should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defence of our national existence.

 

HISTORY OF PAKISTAN

 

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About the Jatts

INTRO

The Jats/Jatts of Northern India and Pakistan, are descendants of Indo-Aryan tribes.

In India, they inhabit the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat. In Pakistan, they are found in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh.

The Jats ,like most South Asians,are mostly farmers;however they are also found in many other professions. A large number of Jats serve in the Indian Army, including the Jat Regiment, Rajputana Rifles, Sikh Regiment and the Grenadiers, among others. Jats also serve in the Pakistan Army particularly in the Punjab Regiment.

The Jat regions in India are among the most prosperous on a per-capita basis (Haryana, Punjab, and Gujarat are among the wealthiest of Indian states).

THEORIES OF ORIGIN

There are numerous theories about the origin of the Jats. Jats are commonly considered to be of Scythian (Saka) , Indo-European, Indo-Iranian or Indo-Aryan stock in view of the similar physical features and common practices.

Both, Sir Alexander Cunnigham [1]and Col James Tod [2]agreed in considering the Jats to be of Indo-Scythian stock. The former identified them with the “Zanthi” of Strabo and the “Jatti” of Pliny and Ptolemy; and held that they probably entered the Punjab from their home on the Oxus very shortly after the Meds or Mands , who also were Indo-Scythians, and who moved into the Punjab about a century before Christ. The Jats seem to have first occupied the Indus valley as far down as Sindh, whither the Meds followed them about the beginning of the present era.

But before the earliest Muslim conquests the Jats had spread into Punjab proper, where there were firmly established in the beginning of the eleventh century. By the time of Babar, the Jats of the salt range had been in constant conflict with the Gakkhars, Awans and Janjuas. Tod classed the Jats as one of the great Rajput tribes; but here Cunningham differed from him holding the Rajputs to belong to the original Aryan stock, and the Jats to a late wave of immigrants from the north west, probably of Scythian race.

In ‘Punjab Castes’, Sir Denzil Ibbetson wrote: ” …. the original Rajput and the original Jat entered India at different in its history. But if they do originally represent to separate waves of immigration, it is at least exceedingly probable, both from there almost identical physique and facial character and from the close communion which has always existed between them, that they belong to one and the same ethnic stock; and it is almost certain that the joint Jat Rajput stock contains not a few tribes of aboriginal descent, though it is probably in the main Aryo-Scythian, if Scythian be not Aryan.”

The Arabian traveller Al-Biruni has mentioned that Lord Krishna was a Jat.

 

JATTS IN THE MAHABHARATA

Jats find a mention in most ancient Indian literature. Over sixty clans are named in the Rig Veda.In the Mahabharata as they are mentioned ‘Jartas’ in ‘Karna Parva’. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini of 900 BCE has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Astādhyāyī in the form of shloka as or “Jat Jhat Sanghate”. This means that the terms ‘Jat’ and ‘democratic federation’ are synonymous. He has mentioned many Jat clans as settled in Punjab and North west areas. They are mentioned in the grammar treatise of Chandra of the fifth century in the phrase sentence “Ajay Jarto Hunan”, which refers to the defeat of Huns by the Jats under the leadership of Yasodharman. The inscription of Mandsaur also indicates that Yasodharman, the ruler of Malwa, was a Jat of the Virk gotra ( clan).

ETYMOLOGY

The most acceptable theory about the origin of the word, ‘Jat’ is that it has originated from the Sanskrit language word “Gyat” . The Mahabharata mentions in chapter 25, shloka 26 that Lord Krishna founded a federation ‘Gana-sangha’ of the Andhak and Vrishni clans. This federation was known as ‘Gyati-sangh’. Over a period of time ‘Gyati’ became ‘Gyat’ and it changed to Jat.[7]

The other prominent theory of the word’s origins is that Jat came from the word Gaut tribal name of some Indo-Aryan tribes of Central Asia (such as those which later became Gauts/Goths and settled in Europe), which was written in ‘Jattan Da Ithihas’. It has also been mentioned by Bhim Singh Dahiya. [8]

According to the historian ‘Ram Lal Hala’ the word Jat is drived from word ‘Yat’. There was a king named ‘Yat’ in Chandra Vanshi clan who was ancestor of Lord Krishna. The Jats are descendants of King Yat. ‘Yat’ later changed to ‘Jat’.[9]

There are many variations of the term Jat. In the Punjab, the phonetic sound is ‘Jutt’or ‘Jatt.

GENETICS

A recent study of the people of Indian Punjab, where about 40% or more of the population are Jats, suggest that the Jats are similar to other populations of the Indus Valley.The study involved a genealogical DNA test which examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (mutations in a single DNA “letter”) on the Y chromosome (which occurs only in males). (See Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups for a listing and explanation.)

Jats seem to share many common haplotypes with German, Slavic, Baltic, Iranian and Central Asian groups.Unusually, Jat groups share only two haplotypes, one of which is also shared with the population of present-day Turkey, and have few matches with neighbouring Pakistani populations. This haplotype shared between the two Jat groups may be part of the Indo-Aryan (or Indo-European) genetic contribution to these populations, where as the haplotypes shared with other Eurasian populations may be due to the contribution of Indo-European Scythians (Saka, Massagetae) or White Huns. (These groups may of course all be branches of a larger ethnic complex.)

As for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Jats contain haplogroups typical of North India, Pakistan, and West Asia. This suggests that, at least for mtDNA, there is very little connection with Central Asian or northwest European populations, even though Jats share many male Y-SNP markers with these populations. Hence this suggests that there has been male migration in or out of the Jat population in historical times. Alternatively, the formation of the Jat population may have occurred in West Asia or North India.

RELIGION

Jats are tolerant in their religious outlook. They were previously ardent followers and supporters of Buddhism and Jainism, along with the Vedic religion, and its successor, modern Hinduism. About 30% of all Jats follow Sikhism, especially in the Punjab, the rest are evenly split between Islam and Hinduism. Most Hindu Jats reside in India in the states of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Most Sikh Jats reside in Punjab (India), though they have also spread throughout India and across the globe, especially in Canada, England, and Northern California in the United States. Despite having followed different religions for centuries, Jats have maintained their ancestral Jat characteristics. The common clan names among the jats of various faiths and regions are an important proof of their common ancestry or ethnic background.

CLANS

Many Jat clans are also cross-listed as Rajput, Choudhary, Zamindar, Khatri, Gujjar, Tarkhan and Kamboj especially Sodhi, Sial, Kashyap, Kakkar (Khakkar/Ghakkar), Rai and Walia. It is not entirely clear in the case of many clans and surnames as to which subdivision of the Kshatriya caste they belong to. Eventually, Scythian, Parthian, Greek-Bactrian, and various other Central Asian tribal peoples (such as the Hephthalites, and the Tocharians or Yuezhi) were absorbed into the Kshatriya caste, given their warlike nature, and thus became one of the subgroups or in many cases, assimilated completely into older Indo-Aryan clans. It is probable that Khatris, Rajputs, Jats, Gujjars, Tarkhans and Kamboj , have varying degrees of both foreign and indigenous Indian stock. In many parts, it is largely due to familial tradition that some members of a certain clan dub themselves Rajput and others of the same clan are Jat, Gujjar, Khatri, Tarkhan and Kamboj. This is more often the case in the Punjab, where there was already a large indigenous Kshatriya population when the invading tribes arrived.

Jatt Culture

Jatt Culture and other associated Factors

Historical sources show that the Jats or Scythians dominated north-west India for thousands of years. The result of this domination could be traced within the local culture and customs. In general, the Punjab culture, especially in rural areas, may simply be called the Jat culture. This may have led Professor Pettigrew [1] of Queen’s University in Belfast, Northen Ireland to write,

“The social organization and value system, especially of the rural Punjab, differ from that of Hindu India. There is high status attached to army and administrative service throughout the region. The clothes worn by the people are designed for an active life. The dress of a female in rural area of Punjab is not a sari (a dress generally worn by Hindu women and in the most of India) but a “Salwar-Kameez”: a knee-long dress worn over the top of loose-fitting trouser”.

These observations of Professor Pettigrew [1] are quite close to the practices of the Scythians [2] and an example of the Jat influence on Punjab culture is Punjabi folk songs. Even today most of these songs contain the word “Jat” (male Jat) and/or “Jati” (female Jat), even if the singer is not a Jat. If we examine this issue from a statistical perspective, the Jats constituted less than fifty per cent of the population but owned most of the rural land in Punjab. This chapter discusses various aspects of the Jat culture and its influence.

Jat Marriages

On Jat marriages, Major Barstow wrote,

“Every Jat clan is exogamous, i.e., while every person “must” marry a Jat of opposite sex, no person “can” marry into his/her own clan (or his/her) mother’s clan (about fifty years ago this was also applicable to the grandmother’s clan as well), as such a union would be regarded as incest. Besides the above restrictions, it is unusual for a person to marry into a family of whatever clan it may be that settled in his/her own village. Unions between persons of different religion are forbidden, but for this purpose no difference is made between Punjabi Jats who are Hindus and Jats who are Sikhs”.

Almost identical opinions on this issue are expressed by Captain Falcon [6] on page 48 of his book. Even today at least among Punjabi Jats and their descendants living in the west, this practice is still maintained. A quick study of ethnic newspapers with matrimonial sections in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom can easily verify this practice.

Herodotus [7] tells us that the, “Scythians are dead-set against foreign ways” and cites the story of Scylas, a Scythian chief, marrying a Greek woman and its aftermath result.
Jats, irrespective of whether Hindu or Sikh, allow widows to remarry. However, as per Major Barstow [5], “The marriage of widows is not allowed by the ancient books of the majority community of the South Asia—-”.

Republicanism of the Jat, Morality and Crime, Ancestor Worship

Jats strongly believe in democratic institutions. In fact as per Captain Bingley [8] and Major Barstow [5],

“From the earliest times Jats have been remarkable for their rejection of the monarchical principle, and their strong partiality for self-governing commonwealths. —-a typical example of the primitive agricultural commonwealth, has always been most flourishing in districts inhabited by Jats”.

According to historical records [9], Porus, after he was defeated by Alexander, warned him that the next people Alexander will encounter in Punjab would be fierce warriors who do not believe in monarchical principles. Alexander, however, pressed on and encountered Malli (Jats), it was during the battle with them he was injured and in comma for over a week.

An eminent Sikh scholar, Khushwant Singh [10], said it was the Jats who introduced the panchayat system (a body of five elected people that is widely practiced in modern India). In fact, he wrote,

“They (Jats) brought with them certain institutions, the most important being the pancayat (panchayat), an elected body of five elders, to which they pledged their allegiance. Every Jat village was a small republic —”.

More information on Panchayats see Ref. [5] page 163. Interestingly, this highlights the fact that the modern Jats have kept this tradition alive for hundreds of years. For example, Ammianus Marcellinus [11], a fourth century Roman, wrote,

“—-all are born of noble blood, and moreover they (Alani—-a branch of the Massagetae or “great” Jats) choose chiefs those men who are conspicuous for long experience as warriors”.

In regard to modern Jats, Professor Pettigrew [1] said in her book,

“There are more leaders than followers, and, bow the knee only to themselves and God. The Jats showed a marked lack of respect for those in positions of power-an irreverence aptly illustrated by the classic reply of the rebelling army to the wife of Ranjit Singh (famous Sikh ruler and a Jat)-acting as regent after Ranjit Singh’s death - when she (herself also a Jat) asked for their support: give us gifts, your rule depends on us”.

With respect to morality and crime in, Major Barstow’s [5] words,

“The mass of Jat Sikh population may fairly be said to be contented and law-abiding”.
According to my information this is also applicable to the other Jats as well.
Generally, Hindu and Sikh Jats tend to continue to follow their ancient custom of worshipping their common ancestors. In the Punjabi language, it is called the “Jathera” worship. Usually, it is mandatory in rural areas for newly wed Jats to visit and worship the village “Jathera” shrine, erected in the fields, usually a day after their wedding day, with fanfare. Some of the remarks of Western writers regarding “Jathera” worship are as follows:

“Among Gujars (a people also related to the Jats) especially, tiny shrines to ancestors are common all over the fields, and among the Jats they are to be found in every village” (Captain A.H. Bingley [12], pp. 65).

“Once a year the Zamindar (it means landlord or Jat, for more information on this issue see Captain Falcon [6], page 27) will worship the “Jathera”, or common ancestor of the clan, to whom a large shrine is erected in the neighbourhood of the village” (Major Barstow [5], page 89).

“The worship of the “Jathera”—-is universal among Jats—-. Small shrines to common clan ancestors “Jathera” will be found all over the fields” (Captain A.H. Bingley [8], page 60).

“In the Punjab these larger shrines are called “Jathera”, or ancestor. The 15th of the month (in some areas of the rural Punjab it is called “Karsi”) is sacred to the ancestors, cattle—-doing no work on that day” (Captain Falcon [6], pp. 55).

The Jats’ forefathers, or their cousins in the ancient times in Central Asia and in the surrounding areas, also worshipped their ancestors. Professor Bachrach [13] wrote, “they (Alani) worshipped or perhaps more exactly, venerated their ancestors”. Furthermore, Talbot-Rice [4] on page 181 of his book said, “Among the various practices which the Slavs inherited from the Scythians, the most important consisted in the worship of their ancestors”.

Jat Ornaments and Warrior Qualities

Jats wear or used to wear various types of gold jewellery. “Kaintha” (necklace for males), “Murki” (earrings for, usually, maried women), “Mundri” (earrings for the males), and “Mundi” (ring) are some common ones. In Captain Falcon’s [6] words,

“Jewellery of the Jat is roughly of three kinds, necklaces of gold and coral beads strung together called “mahla”; bracelets of gold or of silver called “Kangan”, and rings of silver or gold and roughly set stones called “Mundi”.
The infamous “Oxus Teasure” discovered by archeologists in date in Central Asian Scythian graves had many of the aforementioned articles. For example, Talbot-Rice [4] wrote,

“Earrings are found on most of the bodies; the men wore only one whilst women had two. Finger rings were universal, and several are often discovered on each finger of both hands”.

The following remarks are made by some Western military officers and others regarding the warrior qualities of the Jats:

“Jat Sikhs are manly without false pride—- hundreds of young Jats became Sikhs, and those who but a few years before had proved our stoutest opponents, now joined our (British) ranks and fought for us (British) with a valour and loyalty that is beyond all praise” (Major Barstow [5] pages 152 and 155).

“His (Jat) manners indeed do not bear that impress of generations of wild freedom which marks the races of —–, but he is more honest, more industrious, and at least their equal in courage and manliness” (Captain Bingley [8], page 90).

“The back-bone of the Sikh people is the great Jat caste (people?), divided and sub-divided into numerous clans—-. The Jats are thoroughly independent in character, and assert personal and individual freedom, as against communal or tribal control, more strongly than any other people” (Captain Falcon [6] page 65).

“The Jats considered themselves to be born Sikhs and Sardars (roughly means lords or leaders). When the sixth Guru (of the Sikhs), Guru Har Gobind, had succeeded in building up an army the recruits had been drawn from the Jats. Similarly, Guru Gobind Singh, (tenth and last guru of the Sikhs)—-coincided with a large influx of the Jats of Manjha (mostly the area of the District Amritsar, Punjab) into the Khalsa (baptised Sikh army). Thirty percent of male Jat Sikhs of Ludhiana district had enlisted in the World War I—–” (Professor Pettigrew [1], pages 41, 26, 16).

These show that the warrior spirit of Jat ancestors is still preserved by modern day Jats. Ammianus Marcellinus [11] wrote, “Alani delight in danger and warfare. There the man is judged happy who has sacrificed his life in battle—-”.

Jatt Dress, Sports and Proverbs

Major Barstow [5] described, the typical Jat dress: “The well to do Jat has his clothes made of better materials, and will generally indulge in a well-fitting waist coat and a black or coloured coat made of broad cloth or alpaca according to the season. The dress of the women is brighter—-always some colour in it. A wrap is always worn over the head—-. With this are worn a loose jacket—-and either an ample pair of pyjamas tight at the feet,or apetticoat”. In modern days, South Asian leaders and other well to do males generally wear a long coat called “Achkin” along with a tight fitting trouser called “Churidar Pyjama”.

According to an inscribed picture of an ancient Indian Scythian or a Jat soldier, the modern dress of South Asian well- to- do people, is almost identical to the Scythian soldier’s dress (for the examination of this see picture plate LXXVIII in Ref. [14]).

Inscriptions and pictures found in the graves of ancient Scythian men from Central Asia indicate that the Scythians were probably the first people to wear modern coats and trousers.(For more information see photographs given in Refs.[2,4,15,16]).

On this issue Talbot-Rice [4] said, “It is very probable that the Scythians evolved the style of their upper garment from the Assyrian (the ancient land of the Assyrians is nowadays mostly part of the modern Iran) tunic, but they soon turned it into a garb admirably suited to their equestrian form of life. It was the very antithesis of the swirling draperies of Greece or Rome, but the benefits which it conferred on mounted warriors (probably he means Scythians and their cousins) were constantly being proved in battle. Yet the costume was never adopted by the Greeks and it was not until about 300 B.C. when the Chinese started to adopt it. The Chinese Emperor introduced a costume modelled on that his nomad enemies (it is to be noted that the Chinese built 1500 miles long and upto 35 feet high the Great Wall of China to basically keep Massagetae or “great” Jats out of their territory. And according to a conservative estimate [17] it costs the Chinese, the lives of over 400,000 workers and thus it may be called “the longest cemetery”, and the only man made structure visible from the Outer Space. All of these workers were buried inside the wall), and the baggy trousers and close fitting tunics which survived as China’s national dress until recently—-clearly identifiable variant of Scythian Dress”.

Jat Sikhs are fond of running, jumping, weight lifting, wrestling, and quoit throwing[5]. Normally, Jat boys in villages usually play “Saunchi” and “Kabbadi”,in particular. Barstow wrote [5], “In “Saunchi” the spectators form a large ring, inside which are two smaller ones. A man from one of these inner rings advances and is chased by two or three men from the other, to elude whom he may trip up or strike in the chest with the open hand. “Kabbadi” is very much the same as “Prisoner’s Base”".

Some of the proverbs concerning the Jats are as follows:

Jat mara tab janiye jab tera din ho jaye” ( It means as per Crooke [18] or Ref. [12] “Never be sure a Jat is dead till the thirteen days of mourning for him are over”)

Jangal ma Jat na Chheriye, hattii bich Kirar, Bhukha Turk na Chheriye,ho jaye ji ka jhar” (It means as per Crooke [18] or Ref.[12] “Meddle not with the Jat in the wilds, or the Kirar (shopkeeper) at his mart, nor a hungry Turk; if you do so you will risk your life”)

The Jat stood on his own corn heap and called out to the King’s elephant-drivers “Hi there, what will you take for those little donkeys?” (Sir Risley [19] page 132)

“If he (Jat) runs amuck it takes God to hold him” (Sir Risley [19] page 132)

Kabit sohe Bhat ko, kheti sohe Jat Ko” (It means as per Crooke [18] or Ref. [12] “Songs, suit a Bhat (traditional Poet), and husbandry a Jat”)

Sat jindki bahin, Dhillon Kadh Kosatti whin” (It means as per Rose [20] a Dhillon (Jat) will always perform what he has promised)

Clan Names Directory

Jatt Clan Names
Original List
Revised By Muhammad Rafique

There are hundreds of clan names unique to Jatts, irrespective of their religious beliefs: Hinduism, Islam, or Sikhism. In fact Rose,  puts it very well, “Broadly speaking (with respect to British Punjab), the Jatt is a Musalman in the Western Districts, a Sikh in the Centre and a Hindu in the South-East, but there are many exceptions to this rule”. Many clan names are common to Hindu, Muslim and Sikh Jats. For example, some of the clan names common to Sikh and Muslim Jats are Chimma, Randhawa, Toor, Bajwa, and Bhatti. Similarly, some of the common clan names shared by Hindu and Sikh Jats are, Mann, Dhillon, Bhatti, Chahil, Sandhu, Narwal, Dhaliwal and Atwal.

Furthermore, some Jat clan names are not unique to the Jats but are identical to that of Rajput (”son of the king”), and Gujar peoples related to the Jats, irrespective of their religious beliefs. For example, Dahiya, Chhokar, Bagri and Bhatti [2,3] clan names are common to both Jats and Rajputs. Similarly, Dahiya, Chhokar, Rawat, Bhatti, Bagri, etc., clan names are identical for both Jats and Gujars [2,3]. However, Dahiya [3] said, “It should be noted that the Mann, Dhillon, Virk, Kang, Her, Mor, Johal, Pauniya, etc., are not found in the Rajputs. The reason is simple-none of them were formally converted to the orthodox Brahmanism (Hinduism)”.

According to Rose [1] many Jat clans still claim royal ancestry: Gill (king of Garh Mithila), Mann (king Banipal), Sidhu (Rajput king Jaissal and the founder of the famous city of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan), Dhillon (king Karn), and Aulakh (King Lui Lak), Sandhu (solar Rajputs or a Sandhu king and also according to Rose [1] Sandhus somehow have extemely hard feelings toward certain priests, for example, Rose [1] wrote on page 425 of his handbook, “If—-looks towards my tomb cut him off. The —-and I are enemies as is a draught to a lamp.——-”.), Bains (belongs to one of the 36 royal families of Rajputs), Bajwa (king Shalip), Chahal (king Agarsen Surajbansi), Chattha (Prithi Rai, the Chauhan king of Delhi), Deol (king Jagdeo), Ghumman (king Dalip of Delhi), Goraya (king Guraya), Pannun (a Solar Rajput King), Sohi (King Kang), and Grewal (king Rick and according to Major Bastow [5] on page 106, “Grewal families of villages Kila Raipur, Gujarwal, and Naurangwal of Ludhiana district (Punjab) still had a sort of local authority at the close of the 18th century”).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

Ablana, Abni, Abra, Abusaria, Achara, Agah, Agre, Agwana, Ahlawat, Ahulana, Ajmeria,Alpah, Alwi, Amlawat, Anaadi, Andar, Andhak, Ansari, Antal, Anuja, Anwal, Arab, Arar,Arwal, Arya, Asar, Asiagh, Asra, Athangal, Atri, Atwal, Aujla, Aulakh, Aurak, Ayasi

B

Babal, Babbar, Bachak, Bachhal, Badah, Badanah, Badechh, Bader, Badesha,
Badhan or Pakhai, Badohal, Badro, Badyal, Badye, Bagrah, Bagri, Bahal, Bahia, Bahniwal,Baht, Baidwan, Bains, Bairwal, Bajwa, Bajya, Bakarki, Bal, Balagan, Balham, Balhara,Balho, Balwatrah, Balyan, Bamraulia, Bana, Banb, Band, Bandal, Bandechh, Bandejah,Bandesha, Banhor, Bansi, Barar, Bargoti, Barian, Barjati, Barola, Baryar, Basi, Basra,Basra, Basran, Bassi, Baswan, Bat or Bath, Batar, Bati, Battar, Bawah, Bawre, Beniwal,Benning, Berag, Bhadah, Bhadare, Bhadiar, Bhadu, Bhagar, Bhaggu, Bhains, Bhalar,Bhalerah, Bhalli, Bhalothia, Bhaman, Bhambu, Bhamrai, Bhandar, Bhander, Bhango,Bhangoo, Bhangu, Bhaniwal, Bhanrar, Bhar, Bharah, Bharal, Bharanch, Bharhaich,Bhari, Bharwal, Bharwana, Bharyar, Bhati, Bhati  Wad, Bhattal, Bhatti, Bhela, Bhichar,Bhidal, Bhind, Bhindal, Bhindar, Bhinder, Bhojiya, Bhola, Bholar, Bhonah, Bhotah, Bhotar, Bhukar, Bhullar, Bhutha, Bijarniya, Billing, Bindra, Binning, Birring, Bisla, Bochah, Bogan, Bojak, Bola, Bonah, Bopahrae, Boperai, Bosan, Botar, Boughan, Braich, Brar, Bubak, Buch, Budania, Budhwar, Buhar, Bura ,Burana, Burdak, Burra, Buta, Buttar, Buttar

C

Chaddu, Chadhar, Chahal, Chaina, Chakkal, Chakora, Chamal, Chamer, Chanan, Chanbal, Chandar, Chandarh, Chander, Changala, Chankar, Channar, Chanon, Chanwan, Chasti, Chatha, Chattha, Chatyal, Cheema, Chemiya, Chhajra, Chhaju, Chhamia, Chhana, Chhanb, Chhaner, Chhatar, Chhatta, Chheena, Chhina, Chholiana, ChhonChhoni, Chikkara, Chilka, Chimma/Chima/Cheema, China, Chohang, Chokahi, Chokhia, Choniya, Chosar, Chowah, Chowan

 

 

D

Dabas, Dabb, Dabra, Dadhwal, Dadu, Dagar, Dagur, Daha, Dahal, Dahalo, Dahamrai, Dahan, Dahang, Dahar, Dahawa, Dahba, Dahiya, Dahko, Dahloli, Daho, Dahon, Dahrala, Dahrija, Dal, Dalal, Dalani, Dalo, Dammar, Dandi, Dandiwal, Dangi, Danwar, Dargh, Daspal, Daul, Dehia, Dehr, Deo, Deoania, Deol, Derija, Deshwal, Deshwal, Deswal, Dewala, Dewar, Dhadah, Dhadli, Dhadli/Dhandli/Dhadly, Dhadwar, Dhaka, Dhakku, Dhalan, Dhali, Dhaliwal, Dhaliwal/Dhariwal, Dhalliwal, Dhalon, Dhama, Dhanda, Dhandiwal, Dhandsahar, Dhankar/Dhankhar, Dhankhar, Dhanoa, Dhanoa/Dhnoa, Dhanoe, Dhanri, Dhar, Dharan, Dhariwal, Dharni, Dhasi, Dhatarwal, Dhatt, Daulya, Dhaunchak, Dhaurelia, Dhed, Dheendsa, Dher, Dhesi, Dhillon, Dhindawal, Dhindsa, Dhinsa, Dhoat, Dhol, Dholia, Dhonchak, Dhoot, Dhori, Dhotar, Dhudhi, Dhudi, Dhull, Dihadrae, Dodi, Dolat Dulhat, Dollya/Deela, Domarah, Dookya, Dosanjh, Drigs, Dudi, Duhan, Duhoon, Dullar, Dun, Dund  Rai, Dusanj

E

[No Clan Listed under this Alphabet category]

F

Fageria,Fandan,Faqartadari,Faqrakh,Farswal,Faugat,Faujdar

G

Gabhal, Gabir, Gadarah, Gadari, Gadwar, Gagrah, Gahlot, Gaina, Gakhal, Gal, Galhar, Galwatrah, Gandas, Gandhar, Gandia, Gangah, Ganj, Ganwan, Ganwanen, Ganwari, Ganwen, Garalwal, Garcha, Garewal, Garhar, Garhwal, Gat,Gatab, Gauria, Gawaria, Gazdar, Gazzi, Gehlawat, Gelan, Gendas, Ghagah, Ghagrah, Ghalo, Ghalo, Kanjanarah, Ghalowaknun, Ghaman, Ghan, Ghandham, Ghandu, Ghanesar, Ghangas, Ghanghas, Ghatwal, Ghatwala, Ghugg, Ghumman, Ghurali, Gill, Gir, Girwanh, Godara, Gohra, Goj, Golia, Gondal, GopaRai/Gopirai, Gopalak, Gor, Gora, Gorae, Gorah/Gora, Goratah, Goraya, Goraya/Guraiya, Gori, Goria, Goron, Gorwah, Gosal, Goyat, Grewal Garewal, Guda, Gujjral, Gulia, Guraha/ Gurrah, Guram, Gurm

 

 

 

H

Hajra, Hakim, Hal,Hala, Hamar, Hamara, Hamath, Hamdi, Hamshirah, Hanbi, Handal, Hanga, Hanjan, Hanjra, Hans, Hansalah, Hansarah, Harar, Hari, Harl, Hasam, Hathar, Hatiar, Hayer, Heer, Heera, Heeray, Her or Porawal, Hijra or Hinjra, Holi, Hondal or  Hundal, Hooda, Hothi , Huda, Hullai, Hundal, Hural

I

Inania, ndolia

J

Jabar, Jagal, aglan, Jagpal, Jahanbar, Jahanbo, Jai,Jajjah or Jathol, Jajra, Jakhar, Jali, Jamra, Jandu, Janer, Jangali, Janghu, Jangla, Jani, Janil, Janjua, Janmeja, Janu, Jarah, Jaria, Jassowal, Jastar, Jatana, Jatasra, Jatatier, Jathol, Jatowal, Jatrana, Jatri, Jauhal, Jaun, Jawa, Jawanda, Jawia, Jethoo, Jewlia, Jhaal, Jhad, Jhaj, Jhajharia, Jhakar, Jhalan, Jhalli, Jhamat, Jhammat, Jhandi, Jhandir, Jhari, Jhinjar, Jhonjah, Jhor, Jhotah, Jhuj, Jhuti, Jhutti, Johal, Johiya, Jojah, Joldaha, Jomar, Jondah, Joon, Jopo, Josan, Judge, Jun, Junhi, Jurai, Juta

K

Kachala, Kachela, Kadian, Kahl, Kahlon, Kahon, Kahut, Kailey, Kajala, Kajlan/ Kajla, Kak, Kakran, Kal Khand, Kalar, Kalasarah, Kaler, Kaleroth, Kalhan, Kalhir, Kalhora or, Kalirai, Kaliramna/Kalirouna, Kalirawan/Kaliraman/Kaliramna, Kalkat, Kalkhande, Kallo, Kallu, Kalo, Kalon, Kalru, Kalwaniya, Kamera, Kamon, Kanag, Kanchi, Kanda, Kandhola, Kandwa, Kaneran, Kang, Kangrah, Kanjan, Kanon, Kanonkhor, Kanwari, Kanwen, Kapai, Karhalah, Karwasra, Kaswan, Kat, Kataria, Katewa, Kator, Katrah, Kauri, Kawari, Kawera, Kehal, Kejah, Kejar, Kele, Kerah, Kes, Khab, Khadal, Khadar, Khagah, Khainwar, Khaira, Khajah, Khajan, Khak, Khakh, Khakha, Khaki, Khal, Khalah, Khalani, Khalia, Khalwah, Khamah, Khaman, Khand, Khangura, Khanjan, Khar, Khara/Kharra, Kharak, Kharb, Kharora, Kharoud, Kharral, Kharwala, Kharye, Khatkar, Khatra, Khatrai, Khela, Khera, Kherwa, Khichad, Khichar, Khichi, Khilchi, Khinger, Khira, Khirwar, Khoja, Khojah, Khokar/Khokhar, Khokhar, Khor, Khoreja, Khosa, Khosar, Khoye  Maurya,  Killa, Kisana, Kler, Kodan, Kohar, Kohja, Kohli, Kohri, Kokarah, Kokraya, Kooner, Kuhar, Kuk, Kular/ Kulhar, Kularia, Kulhari, Kuliar, Kundu, Kuntal, Kuretanah

L

Labar, Ladhana, Ladhar, Lahar, Lahil, Lak, Lakha, Lakhan, Lakhat, Lakhi, Lakhiwal, Lakhlan, Lakra, Lakwera, Lali, Lalli, Lally, Lamba, Lang, Langah, Langanah, Langrial, Lapeja, Lar, Lasai ,Lat, Lathar, Lather, Lathwal, Laur, Lawar, Lehal, Lehga, Lekho, Lel, Leli, Lengha, Lillas, Litt, Locham, Lodhara, Lodhran, Lodrah, Lohan, Lolah, Loleri, Loohach, Lorimalanah,  Loath, Lung here, Lurk

M

Mader, Magsi, Mahad, Mahal, Mahil, Mahani, Mahir, Mahara, Maharana, Mahe, Mahesar, Mahi, Mahli or Malhi, Mahota, Mahra, Mahtarmalhi, Makol, Makoma, Mal, Malan, Malana, Malanhans, Malhah, Mallhi, Malli, Mamar, Mamarha, Mamra, Mamrai, Mann, Mand, Mang, Mangan, Mangat, Mangath, Markanda, Markha, Marrar. Marula, Maryal, Masan, Maswan, Mat, Mattu, Matu, Megal, Megla, Mekan, Menas, Meri, Mermalha, Mesar, Metla, Miana, Mitru, Mochani, Mochhar, Mohal, Mond, Mondah, Mondi, Month, Mor/Maur, Moran, Morare, Motha, Mula, Mundi, Mundtor

N

Nachang, Nadho, Nagra, Nagri, Naich or Nech, Nain, Najar, Naloka, Nanad, Nadal, Nandlah, Nanwa, Narath, Narwal, Narwan, Nat, Natri, Natt, Nawar, Neera, Neola, Nijjar, Nordaha, Nun/Noon

O

Obhai, Odhana, Oesi, Ojal, Ojh, Okhal, Olak, Olakh, Omara, Otar, Otara, Othwal

P

Padah/Padda, Pahal/Pahil, Pahor, Pakimor, Palu, Panaich/Pnaich, Pan, Pandah, Pandeshi, Pandher, Pandi, Panehal, Panjotarah, Panjuttha, Pannu, Pannuhan, Panohan, Panon, Panwar, Panwaria, Parer, Parhar, Passani, Patoha, Paton, Patre, Paungar, Pawri, Phakiwar, Phalar, Phalron, Phalyon, Phiphra, Phoghat/Phogat, Phulsawal, Pogal, Pohea, Pokhwat, Ponar, Poni, Poniya, Pontah, Pote, Puni, Punia, Punn, Punnun, Purahwal, Puriwal.

 

 

Q

Qalhari, Qom, Qurejah

R

Rahal, Rahan, Rahola, Rai, Raibdar, Rain, Rajwa, Rajwana, Rak, Rakhya, Rakkar, Ramana, Ran, Randhawa, Rando, Rangi, Ranidhar, Ranjha, Ratah, Rathi, Rathyah, Rato, Rattol, Rawaki, Rawat, Rawani, Rayar, Redhu/Redu, Reman, Riar or Riyar, Rihan, Rokhe, Ronga,Rongar,Roth,Ruhil/Ruhal.

 

S

Sabrahi, Sadhana, Sadho, Sadhra, Sagal, Sahansi, Saharan, Sahol, Sahon, Sahota/Sihota, Sahrawat, Sahwal, Sajra, Sakhra, Salahah, Salotra, Samdarani, Samejah, Samor, Samra, Samrae, San, Sanbhal, Sanda, Sandah, Sandelah, Sandhal, Sandhar, Sandhi, Sandho, Sandhu, Sandi, Sangah, Sange, Sangere, Sanghera, Sanghi, Sangi, Sangoke, Sangrah, Sangrota, Sangwan, Sani, Sankhalan, Sanmoranah, Sanond, Sansi, Sapra, Sarai, Saran, Sarao, Sarawat, Saraye, Sardiye, Sargana, Sarlah, Saroiah, Sarot, Sarsar, Sarwar, Sarwi, Sategrah, Sathar, Satiar, Satwahan, Saunan, Segar, Segrah, Sehi, Sekan, Sekhu or Sekhon, Sekun, Semi, Seni, Serah, Seti, Sewarah, Sewari, Shajra, Shekhon, Shekhra, Shergill, Sheroran, Sian, Siar, Sibia/Sivia/Sibiya, Sidhu, or Sidhu-Barar/Brar, Sindhu, or Sandhu, Sinhmar, Soha, Sohal, Sohi, Sojani, Solgi, Solkah, Sonal, Sontra, Soro, Sotbah, Sotrak, Suda, Sumra, Sura, Surwat, Swanch

T

Tajar, Tajra, Tak-Seroa, Talah, Taleri, Talot, Tanwari, Taoni, Tanor,Tara, Tarar, Tareli, Tarholi, Tatla, Tatli, Tawri,Tewatia, Thahal, Thathaal, Thind, Thotha, Tiwana, Todi, Tokas, Tola, Toniyan, Toor, Trag, Tulla, Tung, Tur

U

Udhana, Udhoke, Uppal, Uthi, Uthwal, Uttamzais

V

Valana, Varaich/Baraich/Braich/Warraich, Virk/Wirk.

 

 

W

Wabah, Wadah, Wadala, Wadhwa, Wag, Wagan, Wagar, Wagh, Wagha, Waghmal, Wagi, Wahal, Wahala, Wahandi, Wahgah, Wahlah, Wahniwal or Bahniwal, Wahroka, Wahujah, Wains, Wairar, Wairsi, Wajar, Wajba, Wajla, Wajwarah, Walar, Wallerai, Walot, Wamak, Wanda, Wandar, Wanghaya, Wanjo, Wanwar, Warah, Waran, Warbhu, Warhe, Wark, Warya, Warye, Wasir, Wasli, Watarah, Wato, Welan, Wijhi, Wulana

X

[No Clan Listed under this Alphabet category]

Y

Yohal

Z

[No Clan Listed under this Alphabet category]

Pages

Contributors

Artwork

General Jatt History

Jatt History


The Sakas The Scythians inhabiting
Central Asia at the time of Herodotus (5th century B.C.) consisted of 4 main branches known as the MassaGatae, Sacae, Alani, and Sarmatians, sharing a common language, ethnicity and culture. Ancient Greek (e.g. Herodotus, Pliny, Plotemy, Arrian) and Persian sources (Darius's historians) from the 5th century place the MassaGatea as the most southerly group in the Central Asian steppe. The earliest Scythians who entered the northern regions of South Asia were from this group. Historians derive "Jat" fom "Gatae", "Ahir" from "Avar", "Saka" from "Scythii", "Gujjar" from "Khazar", "Thakur" from "Tukharian", "Saurashtra" from "Saura Matii" or "Sarmatians", "Sessodia" (a Rajput clan) from "Sassanian", "Madra" from "Medes", "Trigartta" from "Tyri Getae" and "Sulika" from "Seleucids". "Massa" means "grand" or "big" in old Iranian - the language of the Scythians. The early Sakas or Scythians are remembered by Greek (e.g. Herodotus, Megatheses, Pliny, Ptolemy) and Persian historians of antiquity as tall, large framed and fierce warriors who were unrivalled on the horse. Herodotus from the 5th century BC writes in an eye-witness account of the Scythians: "they were the most manly and law-abiding of the Thracian tribes. If they could combine under one ruler, they would be the most powerful nation on earth." According to their origin myth recorded by Herodotus, the Sakas arose when three things fell from the sky: the i) plough, ii) sword and iii) cup. The progenitor of the Sakas picked them up and hence the Saka race began its long history of conquering lands, releasing its bounties and enjoying the fruits of their labor (the cup has a ceremonial-spiritual-festive symbolism). The relevance of these symbols and codes of life and culture to the traditional Punjabi and northwest society are tantalizingly obvious. A branch of the Sakas kown as the Alani reached regions of Europe, Asia Minor and the Middle East. They have been connected to the Goths of France/Spain, Saxons and the Juts of Denmark.
Entry into India Some of these Saka tribes entered northwest India through the Khyber pass, others through the more southerly Bolan pass which opens into Dera Ismail Khan in Sindh -- an entry point into Gujarat and Rajasthan. From here some invading groups went north (
Punjab), others went south (Maharasthra), and others further east (UP, MP). This explains why some Jat, Gujjar and Rajput clans claim descent from Rajasthan (Chauhan, Powar, Rathi, Sial etc.) while others from Afghanistan (e.g. Mann, Her, Bhullar, Gill, Bajwa, Sandhu, etc.). This is supported by the fact that the oldest Rajput geneologies (10th centuries) do not extend into the northwest's Gandharan Buddhist period (400 B.C. - 900 AD). Sir Cunningham (former Director General of Indian Archeological survey) writes: "the different races of the Scythians which successively appeared as conquerors in the border provinces of Persian and India are the following in the order of arrival: Sakas or Sacae (the Su or Sai of the Chinese - B.C. ?), Kushans (the great Yue-Chi (Yuti) of the Chinese - B.C. 163), Kiddarite or later Kushans (the little Yue-chi of the Chinese - A.D. 450) and Epthalites or White Huns (the Yetha of the Chinese - 470 A.D.). Cunningham further notes that  the successive Scythian invasions of the Sakas, the Kushans, and the White Huns, were followed by permanent settlements of large bodies of their countrymen  Cunningham and Tod regard the Huns to be the last Scythian wave to have entered India. Herodotus reveals that the Scythians as far back as the 5th century B.C. had political control over Central Asia and the northern subcontinent up to the river Ganges. Later Indo-Scythic clans and dynasties (e.g. Mauryas, Rajputs) extended their control to other tracts of the northern subcontinent. The largest Saka imperial dynasties of Sakasthan include the Satraps (204 BC to 78 AD), Kushanas (50 AD - 380), Virkas (420 AD - 640) while others like the Mauryas (324 - 232 BC) and Dharan-Guptas (320 AD - 515) expanded their empires towards the east. According to Ethnographers and historians like Cunningham, Todd, Ibbetson, Elliot, Ephilstone, Dahiya, Dhillon, Banerjea, etc., the agrarian and artisan communities (e.g. Jats, Gujars, Ahirs, Rajputs, Lohars, Tarkhans etc.) of the entire west are derived from the war-like Scythians who settled north-western and western South Asia in successive waves between 500 B.C. to 500 AD. Down to this day, the very name of the region `Gujarat' is derived from the name `Khazar', whilst `Saurashtra' denotes `Sun-worshipper', a common term for the Scythians. The Gujarat-Rajasthan region continues to be the most Scythic region in the world. The oldest Rajputs clans found in southern and western Rajasthan arose much later from earlier Scythic groups; or are of Hun origin (5-6th century AD); and many are no doubt of mixed Scythic-Hun origin. Virtually all are of Scythic descent. Sakastan : The Saka States Uptil the advent of Mohammed Ghori in the 13th century, the west and northwest was politically unified with the subcontinent for only 92 years under the Mauryas since the start of Saptha Sindhva's Vedic period (1500 BC). For most of its independant history it was under the rule of Saka kings. The west was also independant from the rest of India, existing under its Saka dynasties for virtually the entire period of history. The term `Sakastan' which is found on coins, was applied to the Rajasthan-Gujarat core region, and at its greatest extent included Punjab, UP and Haryana as well. The largest Saka imperial dynasties of Sakasthana include the Satraps (204 BC to 78 AD), Kushanas (50 AD - 380), Virkas (420 AD - 640) while others like the Mauryas (324 - 232 BC) and Dharan-Guptas (320 AD - 515) expanded their empires towards the east. A brief selected list of Saka rulers of Punjab and the northwest spanning 16 centuries includes Porus (4th century BC), Mauryas (3rd century BC), Rudradaman, Azes, Maues, Soter Megas (2nd century BC), Azilises, Wima Kadphises (1st century AD), Kanishka I, Haviska (2nd century), Vasudeva (3rd century), Vyaghra rata and Yasovardhana.

Mauryas The Mauryas were themselves perhaps of Scythic origin. D.B. Spooner who evacuated Pataliputra was struck by his findings and writes in his article "The Zoroastrian Period of Indian History" as follows: "For Chandragupta' s times, the evidences are more numerous and more detailed, and indicate a following of Persian customs all along the line - in public works, in ceremonial, in penal institutions, everything". The theory of a Scythic descent of the Mauryas is supported by the following pieces of evidence :

  • symbolizing earth and the irregular curving linesBlack sea in the 5th century BC, "the Saka kings swore by the sun god and refused to surrender earth and water".
     The clan name of
    even today in Punjab, Haryana, BiharIndia

 

 

Indo-Aryan peoples
Total population
approximately 1.21 billion
Regions with significant populations
 India 856 mil [1]
 Pakistan Over 164 mil [2]
 Bangladesh Over 150 mil [3]
 Nepal Over 26 mil  
 Sri Lanka Over 14 mil  
 Maldives Over 300,000  
Languages

Indo-Aryan languages

Religion

Indian religions (Mostly Hindu; with Sikh,Buddhist and Jain minorities) and Islam, some non-religious atheist/agnostic and Christians

Related ethnic groups

Other Indian people · Bangladeshis · Sri Lankans · Nepalese · Maldivians · Pakistanis ·Dravidian peoples  · Europeans · Romani people · Iranians · Nuristanis · Dard people ·Dom people · Lom people · Indo-Iranians

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
        
Jat      
जाट جاٹ ਜੱਟ     
Maharaja Churaman • Bhagat Singh • Gurdas Mann • Bobby Deol
Bhagat Dhanna • Foolabai • Maharaja Kishan Singh • Simi Garewal
Total population
33 million
Regions with significant populations
•   Pakistan
Languages

Punjabi • Hindi • Urdu • Haryanvi • Gujarati

Religion

  Islam •  Sikhism

Related ethnic groups

other Indo-Aryan peoples

The Jat people (Hindi: जाट Jāṭ, Punjabi: ਜੱਟ Jaṭṭ) are historically an Indo-Aryanethnic group native to the HaryanaHimachal PradeshPunjabJammu,UttrakhandUttar Pradesh and Rajasthan areas.

Originally most of the Jats were Hindu. Some of these Jats were converted toIslam and Sikhism as was the case with other castes and clans, and now call themselves Jat-Muslims and Sikh Jatt respectively.

On demographics, the Encyclopædia Britannica states: "In the early 21st century the Jat constituted about 20 percent of the population of Punjab, nearly 10 percent of the population of Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Delhi, and from 2 to 5 percent of the populations of Sindh, Northwest Frontier, and Uttar Pradesh. The four million Jat of Pakistan are mainly Muslim; the nearly six million Jat of India are mostly divided into two large castes of about equal strength: one Sikh, concentrated in Punjab, the other Hindu."[1]

The Jats rose to prominence following the 1669 Jat uprising against Mughal rule, and they ruled various princely states throughout the 18th century. After 1858, under the British Raj, the Jats were known for their service in the Indian Army.

In 1931, the date of the last census of the British Raj before the abolition of caste, they were distributed throughout North India, mostly in the Punjab and Rajputana.

Contents

  [hide

Origin of name

A Scythian horseman from the general area of the Ili riverPazyryk, c 300 BCE.

The name Jat has been connected to the names of the Getae and Massagetae, beginning with James Tod in 1829,[2] which has been attested by scholars from time to time.[3][4] Alexander Cunninghamconnected it with the name of the Xanthii.[5][dubious ]

G. C. Dwivedi writes that the Persian Mojmal al-tawarikh mentions Jats and Meds as the descendants of Ham (son of Noah), living in Sind on the banks of the river Bahar.[6][7] S.M. Yunus Jaffery believes that the Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma, a Persian epic.[8]

Origins and genetic studies

The Jats have apparently formed during the centuries following the collapse of the Kushan Empire, during the early medieval period.

There is some evidence connecting the Jats and the Romani people, the descendants of groups which emigrated from India towards Central Asia during the medieval period.[9] There are serological[10]similarities shared with several populations that linked the two people in a 1992 study.[11][12]

In 2007 a limited medical survey of haplotypes frequently found in the Jat Sikhs and Jats of Haryana, and those found in the Romani populations revealed no matches.[13] However, in 2009 researchers discovered the "Jat mutation", which causes a type of glaucoma in Romani people. Their press release stated:

"An international collaboration led by Manir Ali of the Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, first identified the ‘Jatt’ mutationin one of four Pakistani]families. Further study amongst Roma populations in Europe showed that the same mutation accounted for nearly half of all cases of PCG [Primary congenital glaucoma] in that community. Manir Ali’s research also confirms the widely accepted view that the Roma originated from the Jatt clan of Northern India and Pakistan and not from Eastern Europe as previously believed."[14]

Furthermore, according to early twentieth century writers Ernest Binfield and William Cooke, ethnographic studies found that, at the time, the Jats, Khatris, and Rajputs of the Kashmir, Punjab, and Rajputana areas were the groups who most closely resembled the physical descriptions of Indo Aryans found in Hindu epics.[15][16]

History

Medieval period

There are very few records concerning Jats prior to the 17th century. There are records of Jat states in Rajasthan (the north Rajasthan region, then known as Jangladesh).[17] It is not known when Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert. By the fourth century they had spread to the Punjab. After this, foreign invaders had to encounter with the Jats of this region.[18] The whole of the region was composed of seven cantons namely PuniaSihagGodaraSaranBeniwalJohiya andKaswan.[17]

K.R. Qanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh, the Kaikan region in Sindh was an independent possession of the Jat people.[19] In addition to frequent interaction with Jats (who for them represented Indians), the first Arab invasions of Persia and Sindh were met by the Jat people. According to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, Jat people of the Panwhar clan ruled Umerkot in Sindh prior to Mughal ruler Humayun.[20]

Thakur Deshraj also mentions that the Susthan region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat ofHala clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom (known as Halakhandi) to the Muslim invaders sent by Muhammad bin Qasim.[21]

However, in the beginning of the fifth century, there is evidence of the Jat ruler Maharaja Shalinderruling from "Shalpur" (the present-day Sialkot); his territory extended from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan. This is indicated by the Pali inscription obtained by James Tod from village Kanswa[22] inKota state in year 1820 AD.[23]

Jat uprising and aftermath

In 1699, the Jat people of the Gokula region around Mathura rebelled against the powerful Mughalrulers (see 1669 Jat uprising).[24] The rebellion resulted from political provocation aggravated by the economic discontent, and further aggravated by the religious persecution and discrimination.[25]

In the disorder following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Jat resistance resumed, organized under the leadership of Churaman (1695–1721). Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (1722–1756), established a kingdom centered at Deeg, from which he extended his rule over Agra and Mathura. Badan Singh's eldest son and successor, Maharaja Suraj Mal (1707–1763), extended his kingdom to include Agra,MathuraDholpurMainpuriHathrasAligarhEtawahMeerutRohtak (including Bhiwani),FarrukhnagarMewatRewari and Gurgaon. He has been described as one of the greatest Jat rulers.[26] Suraj Mal moved the capital from Deeg to Bharatpur in 1733. Rustam, a Jat king of the Sogariya clan, had previously laid the foundation of the modern city of Bharatpur. During the British Raj, the princely state of Bharatpur covered an area of 5,123 km2, and its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded to the dominion of India in 1947.

Jat states of the 18th century

According to Cunningham and William Cook, the city of Gohad was founded in 1505 by the Jats of Bamraulia village, who had been forced to leave Bamraulia by a satrap of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Gohad developed into an important Jat state, and was later captured by the Marathas. The Jat people of Gohad signed a treaty with the British and helped them capture Gwalior and Gohad from the Marathas. The British kept Gwalior and handed control of Gohad to Jat people in 1804.[27] Gohad was handed over to the Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between the Marathas and the British. As a compensation for Gohad, the Jat ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda; Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805.[27]

In the 10th century, the Jat people took control of Dholpur, which had earlier been ruled by the Rajputsand the Yadavs. Dholpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who transferred it to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur; by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia ruler of Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company in 1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements, was again occupied by the British. In 1806, Dholpur again came under the Jat rulers, when it was handed over to Kirat Singh of Gohad. Dholpur thus became a princely state, a vassal of the British during the Raj.[citation needed]

Ballabhgarh was another important princely state established by the Jat people of the Tewatia clan, who had come from Janauli village. Balram Singh, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal was the first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was another notable king of this princely state.[citation needed]

Other Jat states of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries included Kuchesar (ruled by the Dalal Jat clan of Mandoti, Haryana), and the Mursan state (the present-day Hathras district in Uttar Pradesh) ruled by the Thenua Jats.[citation needed]

The Jat people also briefly ruled at Gwalior and Agra. The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana(1707–1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757–1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774.[28] After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar SinghMaharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort.[citation needed]

Sikh States

Patiala and Nabha were two important Sikh[29][30] states in Punjab, ruled by the Jat-Sikh [31] people of the Siddhu clan.[32] The Jind state in present-day Haryana was founded by the descendants of Phul Jat of Siddhu ancestry.[32] These states were formed with the Military assistance of the 6th Sikh Guru, known as Guru Har Gobind.[29]

The rulers of Faridkot were Brar Jat Sikhs.[33] The princely state of Kalsia was ruled by Sandhu Jat Sikhs.[34]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) of the Sandhawalia[32] Jat clan (other historians assert a Sansi Caste lineage to Maharaja Ranjit Singh[35]) of Punjab became the Sikh emperor of the sovereigncountry of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. He united the Sikh factions into one state, and conquered vast tracts of territory on all sides of his kingdom. From the capture of Lahore in 1799, he rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab. To secure his empire, he invaded North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (which was then part of Afghanistan), and defeated the Pathan militias and tribes. Ranjit Singh took the title of "Maharaja" on April 12, 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi day). Lahore served as his capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the city of Amritsar. In the year 1818, Ranjit Singh successfully invaded Kashmir.

Demographics

Today, the largest population centre is located in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, the Punjab region, Uttrakhand and Rajasthan; there are smaller distributions across the world, due to the large immigrant diaspora. In the immigrant diaspora major populations centres include the UK, US, Canada, New Zealand, Singapore, Japan, Indonesia, Russia, Belgium and Australia.[citation needed]

Census under the British Raj

The census in 1931 in India recorded population on the basis of ethnicity. In 1925, the population of Jats was around nine million in South Asia, of which 47% were Hindu, 33% Muslim and 20% Sikh.[36]

According to earlier censuses, the Jat people accounted for approximately 25% of the entire Sindhi-Punjabi speaking area, making it the "largest single socially distinctive group" in the region.[37]

The region-wise breakdown of the total Jatt people population in 1931 (including Jat Hindus, Jat Sikhs and Jat Muslims) is given in the following table. The Jat people, approximately 73%, were located mainly in the Punjab region.[38][39]

Name of region Jat population 1931 Approx
Percentage
Punjab (British India) 6,068,302 73 %
Rajputana 1,043,153 12 %
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh 810,114 9.2 %
Kashmir and Jammu 148,993 2 %
Balochistan 93,726 1.2 %
NWFP 76,327 1 %
Bombay Presidency 54,362 0.7 %
Delhi 53,271 0.6 %
Central Provinces and Berar 28,135 0.3 %
Ajmer-Merwara 29,992 0.3 %
Total 8,406,375 100 %

Post-independence estimates

Dhillon states that by taking population statistical analysis into consideration the Jat population growth of both India and Pakistan since 1925, Quanungo's figure of nine million could be translated into a minimum population statistic (1988) of 30 million.[40]

From 1931 to 1988 the estimated increase in the Jat people population of the Indian subcontinent including Pakistan respectively is 3.5% Hindu, 3.5% Sikh and 4.0% Muslim.[41] Sukhbir Singh estimates that the population of Hindu Jatts, numbered at 2,210,945 in the 1931 census, rose to about 7,738,308 by 1988, whereas Muslim Jats, numbered at 3,287,875 in 1931, would have risen to about 13,151,500 in 1988. The total population of Jats was given as 8,406,375 in 1931, and estimated to have been about 31,066,253 in 1988.

Republic of India

Jat people are considered a forward class in all the states of India with those of Haryana or Punjab origin.[citation needed]

Some specific clans of Jat people are classified as Other Backward Castes in some states, e.g.Jats of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi[42][43][44][45]Muslim Jats in Gujarat[46] and Mirdha Jat people (except Jat Muslims) in Madhya Pradesh.[47]

Land reforms, particularly the abolition of Jagirdari and Zamindari systems, Panchayati Raj and Green Revolution, to which Jat people have been major contributors, have contributed to the economic betterment of the Jat people.[original research?]

The Jat people are one of the most prosperous groups in India on a per-capita basis. (Haryana, Punjab, and Gujarat are the wealthiest of Indian states). Haryana has the largest number of rural crorepatis in India,[48]

In the 20th century and more recently, Jats have dominated as the political class in Haryana.[49] and Punjab.[50]

Some Jat people have become notable political leaders, including the sixth Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh.

Adult franchise has created enormous social and political awakening among Jat people. Consolidation of economic gains and participation in the electoral process are two visible outcomes of the post-independence situation. Through this participation they have been able to significantly influence the politics of North India. Economic differentiation, migration and mobility could be clearly noticed amongst the Jat people.[51]

Pakistan

A large number of the Jat Muslim people live in Pakistan[38] and have dominant roles in public life in the Pakistani Punjab and Pakistan in general.[40][36] In addition to the Punjab, Jat communities are also found in Pakistani-administered Kashmir, in Sindh, particularly the Indus delta and among Seraiki-speaking communities in southern Pakistani Punjab, the Kachhi region of Balochistan and the Dera Ismail Khan District of the North West Frontier Province.

North American diaspora communities

The Association of Jats of America (AJATA) is an organisation which serves as a forum and lobby for for Jat people in North America.[52]The North American Jat Charities (NAJC) is one of the main charities for Jat people in that area.[53]

Culture and society

Tejaji fairs are organized in all areas inhabited by Jats

The life and culture of Jats is full of diversity and approaches most closely to that ascribed to the traditionalCentral Asian colonists of South Asia.[36][54] The Jat lifestyle was designed to foster a martial spirit.[55]Whenever they lost their kingdoms, Jat people retired to the country-side and became landed barons and the landlords with their swords girded round their waists.[36] They would draw the sword out of the scabbard at the command of their panchayat to fight with the invaders. Jat people have a history of being brave and ready fighters.[36] They are fiercely independent in character and value their self respect more than anything, which is why they offered heavy resistance against any foreign force that treated them unjustly.[36] They are known for their pride, bravery and readyness to sacrifice their lives in battle for their people and kinsmen.[54]In the government of their villages, they appear much more democratic. They have less reverence for hereditary right and a preference for elected headmen.[36]

Military

14th Murrays Jat Lancers (Risaldar Major) by AC Lovett (1862-1919).jpg
A WW1 (1914-1918) Jat Army Officer's Brass Button - from the famous 9th Jat Regiment an elite-fighting Unit of the Jat Regiment
A Jat soldier

A large number of Jat people serve in the Indian Army, including the Jat RegimentSikh Regiment,Rajputana Rifles and the Grenadiers, where they have won many of the highest military awards for gallantry and bravery. Jat people also serve in the Pakistan Army especially in thePunjab Regiment, where they have also been highly decorated. The Jat Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army, it is one of the longest serving and most decorated regiments of the Indian Army.[56] The regiment won 19 battle honours between 1839 and 1947[57] and post independence 5 battle honours, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakra, 39 Vir Chakra and 170 Sena Medals.[56] Major Hoshiar Singh ofRohtak won the Param Vir Chakra during Indo-Pak war of 1971. Rohtak district in Haryana, which has a high density of Jat people, has the distinction of producing the highest number of Victoria Cross winners of any district in India.[original research?]

The Jat people were designated by British officials as a "martial race", a designation created by officials of British India to describe peoples that were thought to be naturally warlike and aggressive in battle. The British recruited heavily from these martial races for service in the colonial army.[58]

Religion

Historically, the Jat people have sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to the army.

In 1925, the population of the Jat people was around nine million in British India, made up of followers of three major religions Hinduism (47%), Islam (33%) and Sikhism (20%).[36] During the early 1900s, four million Jats of present-day Pakistan were mainly Muslims by faith and the nearly six million Jats of present-day India were mostly divided into two large groups: Hindus concentrated in Haryana and Rajasthan and Sikhs, concentrated in Punjab.

Most Sikh Jats were converted from Hindu Jats[59][60] so they would join forces with the Khalsa to fight against theMughal monarchy.

Varna status

The Hindu varna system is unclear on Jat status within the caste system. Some sources state that Jats are regarded as Kshatriyas[61][62] or "degraded Kshatriyas" who, as they did not observe Brahmanic rites and rituals, had fallen to the status of Sudra.[63] Another author reports that the varna status of the Jats improved over time, with the Jats starting in the untouchable/chandala varna during the eighth century, changing to shudra status by the 11th century, and with some Jats striving for zamindar status after the Jat rebellion of the 17th century.[64] The 1901 Indian census classified the Jat as Shudra.[65]

Social customs

Language

Jat people usually speak PunjabiUrduGojriDogriSindhi, Hindi and its dialects (RajasthaniHaryanviMalvi). Hindu Jats from Haryana and Rajasthan mostly speak Haryanvi and Rajasthani specially their dialects Bangaru or Jatu (literary meaning the language of Jats) andBagri language. Sikh and Muslim Jat people from the Punjab mostly speak Punjabi and its various dialects (such as MaajhiMalwiDoabi,SaraikiPothohari, and Jhangochi).[original research?]

Clan system

All India Jat Mahasabha Centenary Celebrations 2007, Seen in the image are DharmendraDara SinghKamal Patel

The Jat people have always organized themselves into hundreds of patrilineage clansPanchayatsystem or Khap. A clan was based on one small gotra or a number of related gotras under one elected leader whose word was law.[66]

In addition to the conventional Sarva Khap Panchayat, there are regional Jat Mahasabhas affiliated to the All India Jat Mahasabha to organize and safeguard the interests of the community, which held its meeting at regional and national levels to take stock of their activities and devise practical ways and means for the amelioration of the community.[67]

Some of the Jat clan names do overlap with other groups.[68] Jat clans have been compiled by several historians, such as Ompal Singh Tugania,[69] Bhaleram Beniwal.[70][71] and Mahendra Singh Arya.[72] These lists have more than 2700 Jat gotras. Thakur DeshrajRam Swarup Joon and Dilip Singh Ahlawat have mentioned history of some of Jat gotras.

See also

References

  1. ^ Britannica, Encyclopedia. "Jat (caste)" (in English). Encyclopedia Britannica. p. 1. Archived from the original on 27th January, 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Tod, J., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829, pp. 623.
  3. ^ Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1939). A Study of HistoryVolume 2. London: Oxford University Press. p. 435. "It may not be fantastic to conjecture that the Tuetonic-speaking Goths and Gauts of Scandinavia may have been descended from a fragment of the same Indo-European-speaking tribe as the homonymous Getae and Thyssagetae and Massagetae of the Eurasian Steppe who are represented today by the Jats of the Panjab." 
  4. ^ Dhillon, Balbir Singh (1994). "Are the Jats Scythians?"History and study of the Jats: with reference to Sikhs, Scythians, Alans, Sarmatians, Goths, and Jutes (illustrated ed.). Canada: Beta Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 1895603021. "The classical and modern authorities say that the word "Massagetae" means "great" getae (Jats)." 
  5. ^ Alexander Cunningham, Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 33.
  6. ^ Dwivedi, G. C. (2003). Singh, Vir. ed. The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire. Delhi. p. 7. 
  7. ^ K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jat people, Ed Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 16
  8. ^ S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals
  9. ^ Mayall, David. Gypsy identities, 1500–2000: from ... - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. ISBN 9781857289602. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
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  12. ^ Hancock, Ian. Ame Sam e Rromane Džene/We are the Romani people. p. 13. ISBN 1-902806-19-0
  13. ^ "The search with the Jat Sikhs and Jats of Haryana most frequent haplotypes resulted no matches in Romani populations.". Fsijournal.org. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  14. ^http://www.leeds.ac.uk/media/press_releases/current09/glaucoma.htmLeeds University Press Release
  15. ^ Havell, Ernest Binfield (1918). "ARYANS AND NON-ARYANS".The history of Aryan rule in India. Harrap. p. 32. "Ethnographic investigations show that the Indo-Aryan type described in the Hindu epics — a tall, fair-complexioned, long-headed race, with narrow, prominent noses, broad shoulders, long arms, slim waists "like a lion," and thin legs like a deer — is now (as it was in the earliest times) mostly confined to Kashmir, the Panjab and Rajputana, and represented by the Khattris, Jats, and Rajputs." 
  16. ^ Risley, HerbertCrooke, William. Crooke, William. ed. The people of India (2, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 33. ISBN 8120612655. "The Indo-Aryan type, occupying the Punjab, Rajputana, and Kashmir, and having as its characteristic members the Rajputs, Khatris, and Jats. This type approaches most closely to that ascribed to the traditional Aryan colonists of India." 
  17. a b James Tod, Annals and Antiquities, Vol.II, p. 1126=27
  18. ^ Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 616-624
  19. ^ K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Vir Singh, 2003, p.17
  20. ^ Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.705
  21. ^ Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702.
  22. ^ "The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Rajasthan". Museumsrajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
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  27. a b Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke Jaton ka Itihas" (Hindi), p.63-71
  28. ^ Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197–200
  29. a b Singh, Bhagat (1993). A History of Sikh Misals. Patiala: Punjabi University. p. 130. 
  30. ^ Patiala Heritage Society. "Reference to Sikh State". Patialaheritage.in. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  31. ^ "Reference to Sikh States". Patiala.nic.in. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  32. a b c History of the Jatt Clans - H.S. Duleh.
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  36. a b c d e f g h Kalika Ranjan Qanungo: History of the Jats, Delhi 2003. Edited and annotated by Vir Singh
  37. ^ The People of Asia by Gordon T. Bowles. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. 1977, p. 158.
  38. a b Pawar, Hukum Singh (1993). The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and MigrationISBN 8185253228. 
  39. ^ Census of India 1931, Vol. I, Pt. 2; Delhi: 1933. Encl. Brit. Vol. 12, 1968 Jats, p. 969
  40. a b Dhillon, B. S. (1994). History and study of the Jats. Beta Publishers. ISBN 1895603021. 
  41. ^ Sukhbir Singh q. in "Suraj Sujan", August, September and October Issues, 1990, Maharaja Suraj Mal Sansthan
  42. ^ Sheila puts Delhi Jats on OBC list
  43. ^ Jats want OBC status in Haryana
  44. ^ So why are the Gujjars hungry for the ST pie?
  45. ^ Political process in Uttar Pradesh: identity, economic reforms, and governance By Sudha Pai, Jawaharlal Nehru University. Centre for Political Studies
  46. ^ "Central List Of Other Backward Classes: Gujarat". National Commission for Backward Classes. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  47. ^ "Central List Of Other Backward Classes: Madhya Pradesh". National Commission for Backward Classes. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  48. ^ "Poor rural India? It's a richer place"International Herald Tribune. 
  49. ^ Book by Ghansyam Shah on cast and politics , Google book store
  50. ^ History of Punjab politics: Jats do it!
  51. ^ K L Sharma:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Ed. by Vir Singh, p.14
  52. ^ "Association of Jats of America". AJATA. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  53. ^ "About". North American Jat Charities. 
  54. a b Jindal, Mangal sen (1992). History of Origin of Some Clans in India. Sarup & Sons. pp. 17, 36. ISBN 8185431086. 
  55. ^ Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, H A Rose
  56. a b Army's Jat Regiment Best Marching Contingent in Republic Day 2007 Parade | India Defence
  57. ^ BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR: Volume 3(4)
  58. ^ H A Rose, Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP
  59. ^ The transformation of Sikh society - Page 92 by Ethne K. Marenco - The gazetteer also describes the relation of the Jat Sikhs to the Jat Hindus ...to 2019 in 1911 is attributed to the conversion of Jat Hindus to Sikhism. ...
  60. ^ Social philosophy and social transformation of Sikhs by R. N. Singh (Ph. D.) Page 130 - The decrease of Jat Hindus from 16843 in 1881 to 2019 in 1911 is attributed to the conversion of Jat Hindus to Sikhism. ...
  61. ^ Miller, D.B. (1975). From hierarchy to stratification: changing patterns of social inequality in .... Oxford University Press. p. 64. 
  62. ^ Dahiya, Bhim Singh (1980). Jats, the ancient rulers: a clan study. Sterling. p. 350. 
  63. ^ Khanna, Sunil K. "Jat". In Ember, Melvin. M1 Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology. p. 777. 
  64. ^ Krishnaraj, Uma Chakravarti ; series editor, Maithreyi (2003).Gendering caste through a feminist lens (1. repr. ed.). Calcutta: Stree. ISBN 9788185604541. 
  65. ^ India Census Commissioner (1901). Census of India, 1901: Ajme-Merwara. pt. 1. Report. p. 115. 
  66. ^ Maheswari Prasad:The Jats - Their role & contribution to the socio-economic life and polity of North & North-West India, Vol.I Ed. Vir SinghISBN 81-88629-17-0, p.27
  67. ^ B.K. Nagla, "Jats of Haryana: A sociplogical Analysis", The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Vir Singh, p.308
  68. ^ Marshall, J., A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
  69. ^ Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004
  70. ^ Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihāsa, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005.
  71. ^ Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāt Yodhaon ke Balidān, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005
  72. ^ Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998

Further reading

  • Nihal Singh Arya. Sarv Khap Panchayat ka Rastriya Parakram (The National Role of the Jat Republic of Haryana). Arya mandal, 1991
  • Bal Kishan Dabas. Political and Social History of the Jats". Sanjay Prakashan, 2001. ISBN 81-7453-045-2
  • Dharampal Singh Dudee. Indian Army History: France to Kargil. 2001.
  • Dharampal Singh Dudee. Navin Jat History. Shaheed Dham Trust, Bhiwani, Haryana, India.
  • Shashi Prabha Gupta. Demographic Differentials Among the Rajputs and the Jats: A Socio-Biological Study of Rural Haryana. Classical Pub. House. ISBN 81-7054-180-8
  • Aadhunik Jat Itihas. Dharmpal Singh Dudee & Mahinder Singh Arya. Jaypal Agency, Agra. 1998.
  • Atal Singh Khokkar. Jaton ki Utpati evam Vistar. Jaipal Agencies
  • Chaudhary Kabul Singh. Sarv Khap Itihasa (History of the Jat Republic). Shoram, Muzzafarnagar, U.P. India. 1976.
  • K. Natwar SinghMaharaja Suraj Mal.
  • Natthan Singh. Jat-Itihas. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior, 2004.
  • Singh, Raj Pal. Rise of the Jat Power. Harman. ISBN 8185151059. 

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